NR566 / NR 566 Final Exam Study Guide (Latest 2022 / 2023): Advanced Pharmacology for Care of the Family - Chamberlain

NR-566 Advanced Pharmacology for Care of the Family

Final Exam Study Guide

Week 5

- Prevention of osteoporosis with hormone replacement therapy Tara (p.433)

Hormone therapy reduces postmenopausal bone loss and thereby decreases the risk for

osteoporosis and related fractures. Therapy is lifelong and the risk for harm is

increased. Hormone therapy should only be considered for women with significant risk

for osteoporosis, and only when that risk outweighs the risks of hormone therapy.

Meds are: raloxifene (Evista), bisphosphonates (e.g., alendronate {Fosamax}), calcitonin

(Miacalin), and teriparatide (Forteo). Encourage patients to prevent bone loss by

ensuring adequate intake of calcium and Vit D, performing regular weight-bearing

exercises, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol use.

- When and when not to use progestin for hormone replacement therapy and why

Tara (p.430-432)

When:Menopausal hormone therapy

Why: The primary noncontraceptive use of progestins is to counteract the adverse

effects of estrogen on the endometrium in women undergoing menopausal HT.

When:Dysfunctional uterine bleeding

Why: Heavy irregular bleeding that occurs when progesterone levels are insufficient to

balance the stimulatory influence of estrogen on the endometrium. Treatment goals

with

administration of progestins are to stop the bleeding and establish a regular

monthly cycle.

When:Amenorrhea

Why: Progestins can induce menstrual flow in selected women who are experiencing

amenorrhea.

When:Endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma

Why: Progestins can provide palliation in women with metastatic endometrial

carcinoma, but

they do not prolong life. Endometrial hyperplasia, a potentially precancerous

condition,

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can be suppressed with progestins. Benefits derive from counteracting the

proliferative effects of estrogen.

When:Other uses - Supports early pregnancies, prevention of preterm birth (Makena)

Why: Progestins can be used to support early pregnancy in women with corpus

luteum

deficiency syndrome and in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). One

progestin (hydroxyprogesterone acetate (Makena) is approved for preventing

preterm birth in women with a singleton pregnancy and a history of preterm

delivery.

When not to: Women with no uterus

Why: Do not prescribe progestins to women who have undergone a

hysterectomy.

- Local vs. systemic estrogen options and why one would be chosen over the other

Tara

Intravaginal: Estrogens for intravaginal administration are available as inserts, creams,

and vaginal rings. The intravaginal inserts (Imvexxy, Vagifem, Yuvafem), creams

(Estrace Vaginal, Premarin Vaginal), and one of the two available vaginal rings (Estring)

are used only for local effects, primarily treatment of vulval and vaginal atrophy

associated with menopause.

The other vaginal ring (Femring) is used for systemic effects (e.g., control of hot flashes

and night sweats) as well as local effects (e.g., treatment of vulval and vaginal atrophy).

Parenteral: Although estrogens are formulated for intravenous (IV) and intramuscular

(IM) administration, use of these routes is rare. IV administration is generally limited to

acute, emergency control of heavy uterine bleeding.

- Transdermal estrogen therapy has fewer adverse effects Tara

Compared with oral formulations, the transdermal formulations have four advantages:

• The total dose of estrogen is greatly reduced (because the liver is bypassed).

• There is less nausea and vomiting.

• Blood levels of estrogen fluctuate less.

• There is a lower risk for DVT, pulmonary embolism, and stroke.

- Management of oral contraceptives (OCs) Jennifer Jacques

o How to change patients from one combination of oral contraceptives to another.

When one combination OC is being substituted for another, the change is best made at

the beginning of a new cycle. Pg 440

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o How to initiate treatment (when in the cycle is it best to start- may vary based on

type of contraceptive)

The 28-day regimens are subdivided into four groups: monophasic, biphasic, triphasic, and

quadriphasic (four-phasic) (see Table 51.5). In a monophasic regimen, the daily doses of

estrogen and progestin remain constant throughout the cycle of use. In the other

regimens, the estrogen, progestin, or both change as the cycle progresses. The biphasic,

triphasic, and quadriphasic schedules reflect efforts to more closely simulate ovarian

production of estrogens and progestins. However, these preparations appear to offer

little or no advantage over monophasic OCs.

Most 28-day cycle products are taken in a repeating sequence consisting of 21 days of

an active pill followed by 7 days on which either (1) no pill is taken, (2) an inert pill is

taken, or (3) an iron-containing pill is taken. The sequence begins on either the first day

of the menstrual cycle or the first Sunday after the onset of menses. With the first

option, protection is conferred immediately; hence no backup contraception is needed.

With a Sunday start, which is done to have menses occur on weekdays rather than the

weekend, protection may not be immediate; hence an alternate form of birth control

should be used during the first 7 days of the pill pack. With both options, each dose

should be taken at the same time every day (e.g., with a meal or at bedtime). Successive

dosing cycles should commence every 28 days even if there is breakthrough bleeding or

spotting. Pg 441

o What teaching needs to be done

Educate patients on proper protocol for missed doses (depending on medication type

and cycle). Effectiveness of oral contraceptives can be reduced with some medications,

including certain common antibiotics. Pg 446

o What baseline data is needed?

Assess for history of hypertension, diabetes, thromboembolism, cerebrovascular or

cardiovascular disease, breast cancer. Urine pregnancy test. Pg 446

o Contraindications for OCs

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Contraindications to use include current pregnancy, history of thromboembolus, breast

cancer, and women over 35 years of age who continue to smoke tobacco. Use with

caution in women with diabetes, hypertension, and cardiac disease. Pg 446

- How to achieve an extended cycle with oral contraceptives Jennifer Jacques

To achieve an extended schedule, the user would simply purchase four packets of a 28-

day product (each of which contains 21 active pills) and then take the active pills for 84

days straight. Pg 442

- What behaviors would make one birth control method more effective over another?

Akunna Aguwa

o Be able to evaluate a patient scenario and suggest an appropriate birth control

method

(type of prescribed contraception: OC, long-term methods, IUD, etc)

Page 437-438: Among women of higher weight oral contraceptive’s efficacy is

somewhat reduced. Possible reasons include decreased blood levels of the hormones,

sequestration in adipose tissue, and altered metabolism. Combination oral should be

avoided by women with certain cardiovascular disorders as well as by women older

than 35 years old who smoke. An alternative method is preferred: diaphragm,

progestin-only pill, or IUD.

- What effect does CYP450 inhibitors or inducers have on OCs? Akunna Aguwa

o Recall examples of CYP450 inhibitors and inducers from NR565 (Chapter 4 in

textbook) o How does this impact prescribing of OCs?

Page 441: CYP450 inducers like Phenytoin, carbamazepine, Rifampin, alcohol and

sulfonylureas can accelerate OC metabolism and thereby reduce OC effects. Women

taking OC in combination with any of these agents should be alert for indications of

reduced OC blood levels, such as breakthrough bleeding or spotting. It may be

necessary to either:

1. Increase the estrogen dosage of the OC.

2. Combine the OC with a second form of birth control.

3. Switch to an alternative form of birth control.

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Version Chamberlain College Of Nursing
Category Exam (elaborations)
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Authors Chamberlain College Of Nursing
Pages 32
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