OCR_A Level Religious Studies _H573/04 Mark Scheme Oct 2021 | Developments in Islamic Thought

OCR_A Level Religious Studies _H573/04 Mark Scheme Oct 2021 | Developments in Islamic Thought

GCE

Religious Studies

H573/04: Developments in Islamic thought

Advanced GCE

Mark Scheme for Autumn 2021

Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations

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of the examination. It shows the basis on which marks were awarded by examiners. It does not

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commenced.

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candidates’ scripts must be given marks that fairly reflect the relevant knowledge and skills

demonstrated.

Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the published question papers and the report

on the examination.

© OCR 2021

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Indicative content – Responses might include: Guidance

1. ‘The revelation of the Qur’an should be remembered in

everyday ritual.’ Discuss.

AO1 Candidates may demonstrate knowledge and understanding through

the use of some of the following ideas:

• the Qur’an is the Islamic scripture, revealed to Muhammad (pbuh)

on the Night of Power

• the method of revelation means that it is considered to be sacred

words of God, free from error

• according to Islam there have been several books written

containing the words of God but these became distorted. The

Qur’an is the only one revealed in such a way that it is still

undistorted

• for Muslims the Qur’an has absolute authority and has been used as

the primary source for Islamic law

• there are certain rituals that Muslims will do every day. The main

one that all Muslims perform is prayer (salah), which happens five

times a day.

AO2 Candidates may demonstrate evaluation and analysis through the use

of some of the following arguments.

• Some candidates might argue that the revelation of the Qur’an is so

important that it should be remembered in every day ritual because:

o Islam is about submitting to God’s will and without the Qur’an

Muslims wouldn’t know what this was. This makes the

revelation important enough to be remembered in every day

ritual

o the Qur’an is, arguably, the foundation of Islam. This means

that its revelation is one of the most important events in the

history of Islam and suggests that it deserves to be remembered

in every day ritual

o some people may argue that it is remembered on a daily basis,

through the statement of faith (shahadah) and reference to

Muhammad (pbuh). It is difficult to hear the statement of faith

(shahadah) and not think of the revelation

o the unique way in which the Qur’an was revealed is what makes

Islamic scripture different from other religions, from a Muslim

perspective, so it should be remembered in every day ritual

o according to prophetic tradition, no prayer is complete without

a recitation of part of the Qur’an, and since many Muslims pray

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Indicative content – Responses might include: Guidance

five times a day it could be argued this is a way of

commemorating and remembering the revelation.

• Some candidates might argue that the revelation of the Qur’an should

not be remembered in every day ritual because:

o the Five pillars cover the things all Muslims should do. The only

every day ritual included in the pillars is prayer (salat). If

commemorating the revelation of the Qur’an is not part of the

Five pillars then is doesn’t need to be remembered in every day

ritual

o reciting the Qur’an during prayer today as part the living faith

and daily ritual of a Muslim does not necessarily mean the

commemoration of its revelation as a historical event

o the Night of Power, which marks the first revelation of the

Qur’an, is specifically remembered by Muslims on the 27th of

Ramadan, so there is a dedicated time for commemoration

annually

o the Qur’an is considered the word of God for all time. If the

historical revelation is remembered daily it might give the

impression that word was tied to the historical context of the

revelation and weaken the timeless perception

o it could diminish the importance of the revelation if it is

remembered every day. It could become automatic and stop

Muslims really appreciating its importance.

• Some candidates may combine these views and argue that:

o while the revelation of the Qur’an is unquestioningly important

it should be left to individual Muslims to choose when and how

often they want to commemorate it.

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Indicative content – Responses might include: Guidance

2. Evaluate the claim that the existence of Barzakh reflects God’s

mercy.

AO1 Candidates may demonstrate knowledge and understanding through

the use of some of the following ideas:

• the existence of Barzakh is an important part of one of the six

beliefs of Islam, the afterlife. It is a fundamental belief, for all

Muslims, that this life is not all there is

• Muslims believe that life is a test and that all of their actions are

being recorded, to be used to judge them by on the last day

• the afterlife, as described in the Qur’an, is resurrection of the dead

not immortality of the soul. Muslims are taught that at death the

soul doesn’t go straight to heaven but waits in the grave for the day

of judgement

• one of the 99 names of God is the Merciful. This is one of the most

frequently used names for Him in the Qur’an. Every surah, with the

exception of surah 9, refers to Allah’s mercy

• the Qur’an teaches that on judgement day God will be merciful to

all Muslims, even those who have made mistakes.

AO2 Candidates may demonstrate evaluation and analysis through the use

of some of the following arguments.

• Some candidates might argue that Barzakh reflects God’s mercy

because:

o some Muslims believe that their ultimate fate is disclosed to

them during Barzakh. This could be considered as God being

merciful as the soul doesn’t have the torment of waiting to

learn whether it will go to heaven or hell

o some believe people are given brightness to their bodies as a

portend that they will in future enter Paradise in eternal life, so

this is a mercy from God giving them hope

o in Sufism Barzakh is viewed, by some, as a place the soul can

visit during sleep and meditation – not just after death. This

makes it an intermediary between the physical world and the

spiritual world. This could be considered to show the mercy of

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Indicative content – Responses might include: Guidance

God because it allows a connection between the living and the

dead

o those people who have lived as good Muslims can experience

their own heaven in Barzakh and don’t have to wait until the

day of judgement – this shows that God is merciful

o Barzakh is part of God’s will so it must reflect God’s mercy, as

God is by nature merciful.

• Some candidates might argue that Barzakh doesn’t reflect God’s mercy

because:

o whatever Muslims do in this life can’t be altered in Barzakh.

This suggests that God isn’t merciful as there seems to be no

way for Muslims to make up for their wrongdoings

o although Muslims knowing their ultimate fate in advance could

be a good thing it means that those who are destined for hell

have to suffer the torment of knowing that for longer. This

doesn’t seem to fit with the idea of a merciful God

o the state of Barzakh is sometimes described as a barrier

between this life and the next, or a state of waiting in limbo,

before mercy and forgiveness can be fully experienced later on

o some Shi’a Imams have referred to Barzakh as

incomprehensible until a person enters it, so it is not possible to

conclude that it reflects God’s mercy because Muslims do not

fully understand it from the perspective of life on earth

o there are other things that demonstrate God’s mercy better

than Barzakh, such as the revelation of the Qur’an or the pillar

of zakat.

• Some candidates may combine these views and argue that:

o a Muslim’s view on this depends very much on their

understanding of Barzakh - some Muslims might agree and

others might disagree.

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Indicative content – Responses might include: Guidance

3. To what extent does the Qur’an encourage scientific enquiry?

AO1 Candidates may demonstrate knowledge and understanding through

the use of some of the following ideas:

• the Qur’an is Islam’s sacred book which acts as a complete book of

guidance for humanity

• it contains a variety of information and knowledge covering all

aspects of life. It not only contains laws and moral guidance but

seeks to help Muslims understand the universe

• various passages in the Qur’an refer to different scientific disciplines

such as creation, astronomy, geology and embryology

• for Muslims, the Qur’an has complete authority as any information

it contains comes directly from God

• scientific enquiry involves conducting experiments and research and

using the findings to interpret and build on current scientific

knowledge.

AO2 Candidates may demonstrate evaluation and analysis through the use

of some of the following arguments.

• Some candidates might argue that it is true to say that the Qur’an

encourages scientific enquiry because:

o the Qur’an states that all Muslims should seek knowledge.

Scientific enquiry is about seeking knowledge so clearly the

Qur’an encourages scientific enquiry

o the fact that the Qur’an contains information pertaining to

several fields of science itself is likely to encourage scientific

enquiry as Muslims may feel the desire to prove the knowledge

contained in the Qur’an in order to help prove God’s

omniscience

o the Qur’an tells Muslims that God is the creator of the universe.

This means that understanding how the universe works, the

laws of nature, will help Muslims understand God better. This

may encourage scientific enquiry

o a number of scientific statements made in the Qur’an have

been supported by science. This may encourage Muslims to

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Indicative content – Responses might include: Guidance

seek more scientific knowledge, thus encouraging scientific

enquiry

o the Qur’an refers to ‘signs’ in the order of the universe which

some Muslims interpret as justification for rational observation,

on which scientific method is based.

• Some candidates might argue that it is not true to say that the Qur’an

encourages scientific enquiry because:

o some Muslim groups promote a literalist interpretation of the

Qur’an and accept literal statements without question, which

might deter the raising and investigation of questions through

scientific methods

o the Qur’an is a religious scripture, not a science book. It

encourages Muslims to submit to the will of God and try and

live moral lives

o not all scientific statements made in the Qur’an have been

proven by science. This may lead some people to question the

scientific knowledge found in the Qur’an so may actually

discourage scientific enquiry

o the Qur’an insists God is the first cause of creation, which may

not appear to support scientific enquiry into the origins of the

universe

o some Muslims oppose specific scientific theories, such as the

theory of evolution, claiming a literal interpretation of the

Qur’an in support.

• Some candidates may combine these views and argue that:

o the Qur’an encourages scientific enquiry as long as the

scientific findings don’t conflict with what is stated in the

Qur’an.

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Version 2021
Category OCR
Included files pdf
Authors qwivy.com
Pages 18
Language English
Tags OCR_A Level Religious Studies _H573/04 Mark Scheme Oct 2021 | Developments in Islamic Thought
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